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1984年⾥根在复旦演讲,那时美国跟现在多么不

1984年⾥根在复旦演讲,那时美国跟现在多么不同

  我们只在中国呆了5天,就已经⼤开眼界:中国的万⾥⻓城,⼀个可以从太空中都能看到的巍峨壮观的人类建筑奇迹(编者注:以今天的科学理解力,这其实是个比较浪漫的伪科学说法);西安古城,守卫秦始皇陵墓的兵⻢俑。这些是历史的奇迹。

  但是今天我想和你们,⼀所知名学府的年轻⼈谈谈未来,谈谈我们共同的未来。如果带着求知的智慧和好奇⼼来了解彼此,我们将如何改变居住在这个星球上的⼈类的⽣活?

  先从问候开始吧。我带给你们的问候不仅来⾃我的美国同胞,还来⾃你们的中国同胞。这⼉有些⼈应该认识叶扬,他曾经是复旦⼤学的学⽣,毕业后留校成为英语教师。现在他在美国的哈佛⼤学攻读⽐较⽂学博⼠学位。

  在我们来之前,叶先⽣和我的⼯作⼈员说,希望转告⽗⽼乡亲,他在美国⼀切皆好,⽬前正在努⼒撰写论⽂,他经常想起你们。他让我代为问候他的前学⽣、同事、朋友和家⼈,并希望我能⽤中⽂说。

  我试⼀下,(注:用中文说出了)“我想念⼤家”。

  谢校⻓,他希望你知道他期待着学成后回到复旦教书。他说要告诉你,他时时不忘你的友情和⿎励。叶先⽣说你是⼀位⾮常伟⼤的⼥性,也是⼀位伟⼤的教育家。你会为他上个学期全A的成绩⽽⾃豪的。当我们向他表⽰祝贺时,他说:“我没有什么可骄傲的;我为我的母校(复旦)感到骄傲。”

  我想就中美教育交流计划说⼏句。交换留学⽣并不是什么新鲜概念。你们的校⻓谢希德先⽣,早年在美国史密斯学院获得学位。史密斯学院也是我妻⼦南希的⺟校。谢校⻓还曾在我们最伟⼤的科学、⼯程和技术⼤学之⼀的麻省理⼯学院就读。

  在过去的⼏年⾥,我们两国的学⽣交流数量激增。五年前,出国留学⽣只有数百⼈。现在已有2万名中国学生学者在世界各地学习,其中⼀半以上来到美国⾼校。⽬前已有100多所美国⼤学与⼏乎同样数⽬的中国⾼等院校有学术交流。美国的“富布赖特学术资助项⽬”在中国的投资,⽐在其他任何国家都多。在复旦教学的两位美国教授都是富布赖特教授。

  还有20名美国学⽣受此资助,和你们⼀起学习。我们为他们感到骄傲。美国学⽣来中国学习很多东西:如何监测和预测地震,如何在研究癌症的机理和治疗⽅⾯取得⼤的进步。在神经外科和使⽤中草药⽅⾯,中国有许多东西可供我们学习。我们⾮常⾼兴有机会学习中国的语⾔,历史和社会文化。

  另⼀⽅⾯,你们也⼰经表⽰很愿意向我们学习,渴望来美国,学习电⼦和计算机科学,数学和⼯程,物理,管理和⼈⽂科学。我们可以分享这些领域的很多知识,并希望受益于你们的好奇心和求知欲。这种互相学习⼤部分是最近才开始的,最多只有五年。但我们相互合作的领域还在继续增加。

  我们已经同意在贸易,技术,投资以及科学和管理专业知识的交流⽅⾯进⾏更密切的合作。我们刚刚缔结了⼀项重要协议,通过和平利⽤核能来促进我们的技术和经济发展。

  “和平利⽤核能”这个词是关键。我们的协议依赖于,防⽌核扩散这个重要原则。我们两国都不⿎励核扩散,也不会协助任何其他国家获得或开发任何核爆炸装置。

  我们⽣活在⼀个动荡不安的世界上,作为两个伟⼤的国家,美国和中国有责任为减少战争⻛险努力。我们都同意在这个时代,需要⼀个明智的政策来保护宝贵的人类现代⽂明:绝不能打根本不可能赢的核战争。⽆论障碍看起来多么巨⼤,我们都永远不要停⽌减少战争的努⼒。毫不懈怠,直到核武器从这个地球上消失的那⼀天。

  以和平合作为指导,未来取得进展的可能性很⼤。例如,我们代表美国⼈⺠,期待与贵国探讨合作开发太空的可能性。我们的宇航员发现,在太空的零重⼒环境中,我们将能够制造出具有纯度更⾼、效率更好的⽤来拯救⽣命的药物。这些药物可⽤于治疗⼼脏病和中⻛,让数百万⼈受益。我们将在太空学习如何制造”第⼋因⼦“,这是⼀种⽤于治疗⾎友病的稀有且昂贵的药物。我们可以在那⼉研究产⽣胰岛素的β细胞,也许能产⽣第⼀个治疗糖尿病的有效疗法。

  我们可以发射新的卫星,⽤于导航,天⽓预报,⼴播和计算机技术。⾮凡的科技,能把不可思议的事变成现实。我们将能看到,在⼏秒钟内,⼀个希望解决⼯程问题的中国科学家,从复旦就能够联上⿇省理⼯学院的计算机,并得到相关专家的帮助;⽽波⼠顿的科学家将能通过网络,借⼒于上海科学家的专业知识。

  年轻的朋友们,这是未来的发展⽅向。通过汇聚我们的才能,整合双⽅的资源,我们可以使太空成为⼀个新的和平的空间。在⾃由交换知识⽅⾯,中国政府关于加强对外联系的政策不仅能活跃本国经济,⽽且为中美共同利益开辟了新的渠道。

  中国打开了国⻔,让我向你保证,美国的国⻔也向你们敞开。

  我们两国近年来的互动特别令⼈兴奋。历史上,我们缺乏沟通。沉默造成了双⽅的巨⼤损失。⼗⼏年前,我们⼀起致⼒于改变,于是情况开始发⽣变化。尤其在过去的五年⾥,中国对外开放的政策帮助两国开始⽐过去任何时候者更好地了解对⽅。

  但这个过程才刚刚开始。对许多美国⼈来说,中国仍然是⼀个遥远的地⽅,未知⽽神秘。让我们很是着迷。[笑声]

  我想知道你们是否意识到中国⼰经影响到美国⽣活?中国的影响和成就,在美国随处可⻅。如果现在我在华盛顿,透过玻璃窗,我可能会看到⼀对穿着中国丝绸的男⼥在宾夕法尼亚⼤道漫步。他们可能正要去国家肖像画廊看中国艺术展。然后从那⾥,也许他们会散步到我们的国家美术馆,看看由美国华裔建筑师⻉⾀铭先⽣设计的建筑。之后,他们可能会在⼀家中餐馆⽤餐,结束⼀天的游玩。[笑声]

  我们将中国与活⼒,強⼤的⽣命⼒以及并不总是与之相伴的东西联系在⼀起——细致⼊微,这是指敏锐和睿智的洞察⼒。今年1⽉,赵总理在访美期间,看到了美国对中国的态度。他说,在美国呆了⼏天,他从没想到美国⼈⺠对中国⼈⺠有如此深厚的友谊。

  好吧,让我⾼兴地回礼。我发现中国⼈⺠对我们是同样热情⽽友好,这让我们很⾼兴。今天⻅到你们并与你们交谈,只会让我想进⼀步深⼊了解中国。我觉得你们也⼀样,希望更多地了解美国。我想告诉你们⼀些关于美国的事情,并分享⼀些我⾃⼰的价值观。

  ⾸先,美国真的很美国。我们称⾃⼰为移⺠国家,这才是我们真正的⾃⼰。这⾥吸引了来⾃地球各个⻆落的⼈们。⼏乎涵盖了所有种族和宗教,不是⼀点点,⽽是很多。在纽约港有⼀尊⾃由⼥神像,举着⽕炬,欢迎那些初来乍到想成为美国⼈的移⺠。寒来暑往,⾃由⼥神⻅证了数百万移⺠来到这个国家。她仍然站在那⼉欢迎他们。她代表着我们敞开的⼤⻔。

  所有来到美国的移⺠都带来了他们⾃⼰的⾳乐,⽂学,习俗和想法。令⼈叹为观⽌,我们也引以为豪的是,他们不必为了适应新环境⽽放弃⾃⼰的这些东西。事实上,正是他们带来美国的这些东西组成了美国。这种多样性不仅丰富了我们,更是塑造了我们。

  这种传统并不太遥远——新移⺠带来的⽂化丰富了我们传统。新移⺠带来的才能,提⾼了美国⼈的⽣活质量。

  举⼏个例⼦:我想你应该知道他们的名字。

  在美国,王安计算机已成为全国各地办事处的固定设备。他们是王安先⽣的能量和才华的产物,他本⼈来⾃于⼀所上海的⾼校。

  ⻉⾀铭先⽣设计的闪闪发光的建筑妆点我们的市容,他最初是在上海读书时开始对建筑感兴趣。

  诺⻉尔奖得主李李政道博⼠出⽣于上海,他的研究成果扩⼤了我们对宇宙和物质基本性质的了解。

  我们钦佩他们,尊重他们。在此向养育了这些伟⼤的美国公⺠的中国致敬。

  有时候在美国,⼀些⼈可能会各执⼰⻅。这是⼀个爱好争辩的国家。我们更愿意争论。我们可以⾃由地各抒⼰⻅。但作为⼀个社会,我们总是可以团结在⼀起。200多年来,促进我们凝聚的,是我们共同的、深信不移的信仰。

  我希望你们特别注意我下⾯要说的话,因为了解这些信念对了解美国⾮常重要。我们相信每个男⼈,⼥⼈和孩⼦都有尊严。我们的整个系统建⽴在对个⼈特殊才能的欣赏,以及每个人有权做出⾃⼰的决定和过⾃⼰想要的⽣活之上。

  我们相信——以⾄于每个美国⼈都牢记于⼼的的至理名言⾔——我们相信“⼈⼈⽣⽽平等,他们被造物主赋予某些不可剥夺的权利,其中包括⽣命,⾃由和追求幸福的权⼒。”

  会后各位随便找⼀个美国学⽣或⽼师,看看他或她能不能背诵这些出⾃我们建国篇章”独⽴宣⾔”的名句。美国⼈⺠投票选举政府。这是我们选择国会和总统的⽅式。我们说我们的国家,”⼈⺠当家作主“,就是这个意思。

  让我来告诉你⼀些美国性格。你可能会认为,在这样⼀个多元化的国家⾥,不可能有⼀种确定的性格,但在许多基本⽅⾯确实存在这样的性格。

  我们是⼀个讲究公平思想的国家。我们被教育不拿属于别⼈的东西。正如我所说,我们中的许多⼈都是移⺠的后代,我们从⽗辈学会了艰苦劳动。作为⼀个国家, 我们从贫寒中⽩⼿起家,地球上没有⼈⽐这些通过努⼒⼯作⽽拥有⾃⼰的⼀切的⼈更值得信任。没有⼈⽐他们更不愿意拿不属于⾃⼰的东西。

  我们是理想主义者。美国⼈热爱⾃由,我们会为了保护他⼈的⾃由⽽战⽃和牺牲。四⼗年前,当法西斯主义军队席卷欧洲时,美国⼈⺠为保卫受到攻击的国家,付出了极⼤的代价。当法西斯主义的军队席卷亚洲时,我们与中国⼀起并肩战⽃,抵抗敌⼈。

  今天在座的各位中,有些⼈记得那些⽇⼦,记得我们的将军吉⽶·杜⽴特和他的轰炸机队跨越半个地球前来助战。其中⼀些⻜机被击落,⻜⾏员迫降到中国⼤地。你们还记得那些勇敢的年轻⼈。你们掩护他们,照顾他们,为他们包扎伤⼝。救了许多⻜⾏员的命。

  当第⼆次世界⼤战结束时,美国主动从我们曾经战⽃过的远东撤军。我们没有永久的军事占领地。我们没有占据⼀英⼨的领⼟,⾄今我们也没有。我们尊重他⼈⾃由和独⽴的记录是很清⽩的。

  美国⼈⺠富有同情⼼。战争结束后,我们不但帮助盟友我们还帮助我们的敌⼈重建家园。我们之所以这样做,是因为我们想要帮助那些⽣活在糟糕的政策之中,由不良政府统治的⽆辜受害者,因为如果他们繁荣昌盛,世界和平就会更有保障。

  美国是⼀个乐观的国家。和中国⼀样,我们有⽆边⽆际的天空,⾼⼤延绵的⼭脉,肥沃丰产的⽥野和宽⼴辽阔的草原。幅员辽阔让我们看到了⼀切的可能性,让我们充满希望。我们设计了⼀个奖励个⼈努⼒的经济制度,这让我们对未来充满希望。

  美国⼈⺠爱好和平,讨厌战争。我们认为——并且始终认为——战争是⼀种巨⼤的罪恶,是⼀种可悲的浪费。美国希望与邻国和平相处,与朋友和睦共存。

  我想谈谈美国性格的另⼀⽅⾯。宗教和信仰对我们⾮常重要,我们是⼀个有许多宗教的国家。但是,⼤多数美国⼈的信仰来⾃摩西的圣经,是摩西引导⼈们摆脱了奴役;耶稣基督的圣经,告诉我们爱邻如⼰,已所不欲勿施于⼈。

  ⽽且,这也是我们的奠基⽯。这也是为什么我们也希望其他国家繁荣昌盛的原因。这也是为什么当我们听到⼀些⼈⽆法发挥其全部潜⼒,或者⽆法⽣活在和平中的⼈们时,我们会感到难过。我们邀请你们来了解我们。这是⼈⺠之间友谊的开始。⼈⺠之间的友谊,是各国政府之间友谊的基础。横亘在两国政府之间的沉默已经终结。

  在过去的12年⾥,两国⼈⺠已经重新开始相互认识,两国的关系正在⾛向成熟。我们正处于建⽴持久友谊的历史转折点上。现在,正如你我所知道的那样,有很多⾃然的东西把我们分隔开来:时间和空间,不同的语⾔,不同的价值观,不同的⽂化和历史,以及根本上不同的政治制度。不承认这些差异是愚蠢的。为了友谊⽽隐瞒真相也毫⽆意义,因为基于虚构的友谊经受不了这个严酷世界的检验。

  但是,让我们暂时将分歧词语搁置⼀旁,来寻找我们的共同点。中美是两个伟⼤的国家,分别位于地球上的两个相对的半球上。我们都是充满活⼒和⼒量的国家。中国是地球上⼈⼝最多的国家;美国是世界上技术最发达的国家。两国都在各⾃所在的半球具有举⾜轻重的份量。两国之间存在着⼀种动态平衡。在坐的⼯程专业学⽣也许会欣赏这个词汇。它讲究是精密⽽特殊的平衡关系。在⼀些政治问题上相近观点让我们⾛到⼀起,并且我们在⼀些重要问题上看法相当⼀致。美国和中国都反对野蛮和⾮法占领柬埔寨。美国和中国⼀起,谴责邪恶和⾮法⼊侵阿富汗。现在美国和中国在维护朝鲜半岛和平⽅⾯有共识,我们在维护世界这⼀地区的和平⽅⾯有着共同利益。

  两国都不主张扩张主义。我们⽆意占领你们的领⼟,你们也不觊觎我们的疆域。美国不挑战中国的边界。我们不会引起你们的焦虑。事实上,美国和中国都被迫反抗那些侵城略地的⼊侵者。美国现在正在⼤⼒加强我们的防御体系。这是⼀项很昂贵的⼯程,但我们要维护和平,因为我们知道强⼤的美国是维护主权独⽴和世界和平的保障。美国和中国都拥有丰富的⼈⼒资源和⼈才。如果我们实践“通⼒合作”(借助双⽅⼒量,共同努⼒)的建议,摆在我们⾯前的会是什么奇迹?

  在过去的12年⾥,美中两国领导⼈经常会晤,讨论⼀系列问题。通常我们能达成协议,但即使我们没有达成协议,我们也增进了相互了解,并且我们学会了从对⽅⽴场上看世界。

  这个进程将继续下去,如果我们能记住某些观点,它将会⼀直蓬勃发展。我们既不能忽视我们之间的问题,也不能过份渲染。我们绝不能夸⼤我们的困难或者⼩题⼤做。我们必须记住,反对朋友的意愿是很微妙的,当我们被迫这样做时,我们必须试着相互理解。

  我希望,当历史回顾中美关系中的新篇章时,这段⽇⼦将被历史铭记:两国曾接受时代的挑战,为我们的⺠族繁荣昌盛⽽加强合作,并且在争取建⽴更加安全、公正⽽和平的世界⽽努⼒过。

  你们,复旦⼤学的学⽣们,还有中国和美国所有⼤学的学者们,肩负着两国的未来发展的重任。未来⼏⼗年,世界将需要你们发挥才能,相互理解。今天的领导者可以铺平通往未来的道路。这是我们的责任。但是,未来永远属于年轻⼀代。正是由你们来决定,持续的个⼈的友谊能否跨越⼏代⼈的分歧。世界的希望寄托在这种友谊之中。

  当他还⾮常年轻时,周恩来为⼀位即将出国留学的同学写了⼀⾸送别诗。他理解同学争挑重任,负笈远行,但也⼗分珍惜他们之间的崇⾼友情。诗的结尾是这样的:

  险夷不变应尝胆,道义争担敢息肩。

  待得归农功满⽇,他年预卜买邻钱。

  让我们象近邻⼀样友好相处。我很⾼兴有机会在这⾥与你们交谈,在这个对我们两国都⾮常重要的城市与你们会⾯。上海是⼀个学术之城,⼀个⽂化之城。上海⼀直是你们通向西⽅的窗⼝。这是⼀个中美两国发布开启两国现代友谊公报的城市。

  ⻓江在这⾥汇⼊东海,注⼊太平洋,到达美国的西海岸。作为世界上最伟⼤的河流之⼀,长江宽⼴辽阔、波涛汹涌。我的年轻朋友们,在历史的河流中,我们被激流随⼼所欲地裹携⽽下。但我们有能⼒导航,选择⽅向,在同⼀航道上,风雨同舟。微⻛渐起,河流湍急,漫⻓⽽富有成效的⻓途旅程正在前⽅等着我们。

  此后,⼈⺠将颂扬我们的破冰之旅和携⼿共进。⼀起逃离那种在不知不觉的敌意中冻结的命运,如同埋葬了⼏个世纪的西安兵⻢俑。我们⼰经做出了选择,我们将继续这个新的旅程。希望它在和平与友谊中续航。

  ⾮常感谢你们。

  英文原文

  April 30, 1984

  We’ve been in your country only 5 days, but already we’ve seen the wonders of a lifetime — the Great Wall of China, a structure so huge and marvelous that it can be seen from space; the ancient city of Xi’an; and the Tomb of the Great Emperor and the buried army that guards him still. These are the wonders of ages past. But today I want to talk to you, the young people of a great university, about the future, about our future together and how we can transform human life on this planet if we bring as much wisdom and curiosity to each other as we bring to our scholarly pursuits.

  I want to begin, though, with some greetings. I bring you greetings not only from my countrymen but from one of your countrymen. Some of you know Ye Yang, who was a student here. He graduated from Fudan and became a teacher of English at this university. Now he is at Harvard University in the United States, where he is studying for a doctorate in comparative literature.

  My staff spoke to him before we left. Mr. Ye wants you to know he’s doing fine. He’s working hard on his spring term papers, and his thoughts turn to you often. He asked me to deliver a message to his former students, colleagues, friends, and family. He asked me to say for him, and I hope I can, “Wo xiang nian da jia” [I am thinking of all of you].

  He wants you to know that he looks forward to returning to Fudan to teach. And President Xie, he said to tell you he misses your friendship and encouragement. And Mr. Ye says you are a very great woman and a great educator. You will be proud to know that he received straight A’s last term. And when we congratulated him, he said, “I have nothing to be proud of myself; I am so proud of my university.”

  I’d like to say a few words about our China-U.S. educational exchange programs. It’s not entirely new, this exchanging of students. Your President Xie earned a degree from Smith College in the United States. Smith is also my wife Nancy’s alma mater. And President Xie also attended MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of our greatest universities of science, engineering, and technology.

  But in the past few years, our two countries have enjoyed an explosion in the number of student exchanges. Five years ago you numbered your students studying abroad in the hundreds. Since then, 20,000 Chinese scholars have studied throughout the world, and more than half of them have come to American schools. More than 100 American colleges and universities now have educational exchanges with nearly as many Chinese institutions.

  We have committed more resources to our Fulbright program in China than in any other country. Two of the American professors teaching here at Fudan are Fulbright professors. And there are 20 American students studying with you, and we’re very proud of them.

  American students come to China to learn many things — how you monitor and predict earthquakes, how you’ve made such strides in researching the cause and treatment of cancer. We have much to learn from you in neurosurgery and in your use of herbs in medicine. And we welcome the chance to study your language, your history, and your society.

  You, in turn, have shown that you’re eager to learn, to come to American schools and study electronics and computer sciences, math and engineering, physics, management, and the humanities. We have much to share in these fields, and we’re eager to benefit from your curiosity. Much of this sharing is recent, only 5 years old. But the areas of our mutual cooperation continue to expand. We’ve already agreed to cooperate more closely in trade, technology, investment, and exchanges of scientific and managerial expertise. And we have just concluded an important agreement to help advance our technological and economic development through the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

  That term “peaceful use of nuclear energy” is key. Our agreement rests upon important principles of nonproliferation. Neither of our countries will encourage nuclear proliferation nor assist any other country to acquire or develop any nuclear explosive device.

  We live in a troubled world, and the United States and China, as two great nations, share a special responsibility to help reduce the risks of war. We both agree that there can be only one sane policy to preserve our precious civilization in this modern age: A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought. And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war. We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this Earth.

  With peaceful cooperation as our guide, the possibilities for future progress are great. For example, we look forward to exploring with China the possibilities of cooperating in the development of space on behalf of our fellow citizens.

  Our astronauts have found that by working in the zero gravity environment of space, we will be able to manufacture life-saving medicines with far greater purity and efficiency, medicines that will treat diseases of heart attack and stroke that afflict millions of us. We will learn how to manufacture Factor 8, a rare and expensive medicine used to treat hemophiliacs. We can research the Beta Cell, which produces insulin, and which could provide mankind’s first permanent cure for diabetes.

  New satellites can be launched for use in navigation, weather forecasting, broadcasting, and computer technology. We already have the technology to make the extraordinary commonplace. We hope to see the day when a Chinese scientist working out an engineering problem in Fudan will be able to hook into the help of a scientist at a computer at MIT. And the scientist in Boston will be able to call on the expertise of the scientist in Shanghai, and all of it in a matter of seconds.

  My young friends, this is the way of the future. By pooling our talents and resources, we can make space a new frontier of peace.

  Your government’s policy of forging closer ties in the free exchange of knowledge has not only enlivened your economy, it has opened the way to a new convergence of Chinese and American interests. You have opened the door, and let me assure you that ours is also open.

  Now, all of this is particularly exciting in light of the recent history of our two countries. For many years, there was no closeness between us. The silence took its toll. A dozen years ago, it began to change. Together, we made it change. And now in the past 5 years, your policy of opening to the outside world has helped us begin to know each other better than we ever had before.

  But that process has just begun. To many Americans, China is still a faraway place, unknown, unseen, and fascinating. And we are fascinated. [Laughter]

  I wonder if you’re aware of the many ways China has touched American life? The signs of your influence and success abound. If I were spending this afternoon in Washington, I might look out the window and see a man and woman strolling along Pennsylvania Avenue wearing Chinese silk. They might be on their way to our National Portrait Gallery to see the Chinese art exhibit. And from there, perhaps they would stroll to our National Gallery to see the new building designed by the Chinese American architect, I.M. Pei. After that, they might end their day dining in a restaurant that serves Chinese cuisine. [Laughter]

  We associate China with vitality, enormous vitality, and something that doesn’t always go along with that — subtlety, the subtlety of discerning and intelligent minds.

  Premier Zhao saw something of the American attitude toward China when he visited us in January. He said after a few days in our country that he never expected such profound feelings of friendship among the American people for the Chinese people.

  Well, let me say, I’m happy to return the compliment. I have found the people of China to be just as warm and friendly toward us, and it’s made us very glad.

  But meeting you and talking to you has only made me want to know more. And I sense that you feel the same way about Americans. You, too, wish to know more.

  I would like to tell you something about us, and also share something of my own values.

  First of all, America is really many Americas. We call ourselves a nation of immigrants, and that’s truly what we are. We have drawn people from every corner of the Earth. We’re composed of virtually every race and religion, and not in small numbers, but large. We have a statue in New York Harbor that speaks of this, a statue of a woman holding a torch of welcome to those who enter our country to become Americans. She has greeted millions upon millions of immigrants to our country. She welcomes them still. She represents our open door.

  All of the immigrants who came to us brought their own music, literature, customs, and ideas. And the marvelous thing, a thing of which we’re proud, is they did not have to relinquish these things in order to fit in. In fact, what they brought to America became American. And this diversity has more than enriched us; it has literally shaped us.

  This tradition — the tradition of new immigrants adding to the sum total of what we are — is not a thing of the past. New immigrants are still bringing their talents and improving the quality of American life. Let me name a few — I think you’ll know their names.

  In America, Wang computers have become a fixture in offices throughout the country. They are the product of the energy and brilliance of Mr. An Wang, who himself is the product of a Shanghai university.

  The faces of our cities shine with the gleaming buildings of Mr. I.M. Pei, who first became interested in architecture as a student here in Shanghai.

  What we know of the universe and the fundamental nature of matter has been expanded by the Nobel Prize winning scientist, Dr. Lee Tsung-Dao, who was born in Shanghai.

  We admire these men; we honor them; and we salute you for what you gave them that helped make them great.

  Sometimes in America, some of our people may disagree with each other. We are often a highly disputatious nation. We rather like to argue. We are free to disagree among ourselves, and we do. But we always hold together as a society. We’ve held together for more than 200 years, because we’re united by certain things in which we all believe, things to which we’ve quietly pledged our deepest loyalties. I draw your special attention to what I’m about to say, because it’s so important to an understanding of my country.

  We believe in the dignity of each man, woman, and child. Our entire system is founded on an appreciation of the special genius of each individual, and of his special right to make his own decisions and lead his own life.

  We believe — and we believe it so deeply that Americans know these words by heart — we believe “that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among those are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” Take an American student or teacher aside later today and ask if he or she hasn’t committed those words to memory. They are from the document by which we created our nation, the Declaration of Independence.

  We elect our government by the vote of the people. That is how we choose our Congress and our President. We say of our country, “Here the People Rule,” and it is so.

  Let me tell you something of the American character. You might think that with such a varied nation there couldn’t be one character, but in many fundamental ways there is.

  We are a fairminded people. We’re taught not to take what belongs to others. Many of us, as I said, are the children and grandchildren and great-grandchildren of immigrants, and from them we learned something of hard labor. As a nation we toiled up from poverty, and no people on Earth are more worthy to be trusted than those who have worked hard for what they have. None is less inclined to take what is not theirs.

  We’re idealists. Americans love freedom, and we’ve fought and died to protect the freedom of others. When the armies of fascism swept Europe four decades ago, the American people fought at great cost to defend the countries under assault.

  When the armies of fascism swept Asia, we fought with you to stop them. And some of you listening today remember those days, remember when our General Jimmy Doolittle and his squadron came halfway around the world to help. Some of those pilots landed in China. You remember those brave young men. You hid them and cared for them and bound up their wounds. You saved many of their lives.

  When the Second World War was won, the United States voluntarily withdrew from the faraway places in which we had fought. We kept no permanent armies of occupation. We didn’t take an inch of territory, nor do we occupy one today. Our record of respect for the freedom and independence of others is clear.

  We’re a compassionate people. When the war ended we helped rebuild our allies — and our enemies as well. We did this because we wanted to help the innocent victims of bad governments and bad policies, and because, if they prospered, peace would be more secure.

  We’re an optimistic people. Like you, we inherited a vast land of endless skies, tall mountains, rich fields, and open prairies. It made us see the possibilities in everything. It made us hopeful. And we devised an economic system that rewarded individual effort, that gave us good reason for hope.

  We love peace. We hate war. We think — and always have — that war is a great sin, a woeful waste. We wish to be at peace with our neighbors. We want to live in harmony with friends.

  There is one other part of our national character I wish to speak of. Religion and faith are very important to us. We’re a nation of many religions. But most Americans derive their religious belief from the Bible of Moses, who delivered a people from slavery; the Bible of Jesus Christ, who told us to love thy neighbor as thyself, to do unto your neighbor as you would have him do unto you.

  And this, too, has formed us. It’s why we wish well for others. It’s why it grieves us when we hear of people who cannot live up to their full potential and who cannot live in peace.

  We invite you to know us. That is the beginning of friendship between people. And friendship between people is the basis for friendship between governments.

  The silence between our governments has ended. In the past 12 years, our people have become reacquainted, and now our relationship is maturing. And we’re at the point where we can build the basis for a lasting friendship.

  Now, you know, as I do, that there’s much that naturally divides us: time and space, different languages and values, different cultures and histories, and political systems that are fundamentally different. It would be foolish not to acknowledge these differences. There’s no point in hiding the truth for the sake of a friendship, for a friendship based on fiction will not long withstand the rigors of this world.

  But let us, for a moment, put aside the words that name our differences and think what we have in common. We are two great and huge nations on opposite sides of the globe. We are both countries of great vitality and strength. You are the most populous country on Earth; we are the most technologically developed. Each of us holds a special weight in our respective sides of the world.

  There exists between us a kind of equipoise. Those of you who are engineering students will perhaps appreciate that term. It speaks of a fine and special balance.

  Already there are some political concerns that align us, and there are some important questions on which we both agree. Both the United States and China oppose the brutal and illegal occupation of Kampuchea. Both the United States and China have stood together in condemning the evil and unlawful invasion of Afghanistan. Both the United States and China now share a stake in preserving peace on the Korean Peninsula, and we share a stake in preserving peace in this area of the world.

  Neither of us is an expansionist power. We do not desire your land, nor you ours. We do not challenge your borders. We do not provoke your anxieties. In fact, both the United States and China are forced to arm themselves against those who do.

  The United States is now undertaking a major strengthening of our defenses. It’s an expensive effort, but we make it to protect the peace, knowing that a strong America is a safeguard for the independece and peace of others.

  Both the United States and China are rich in human resources and human talent. What wonders lie before us if we practice the advice, Tong Li He Zuo — Connect strength, and work together.

  Over the past 12 years, American and Chinese leaders have met frequently to discuss a host of issues. Often we have found agreement, but even when we have not, we’ve gained insight into each other, and we’ve learned to appreciate the other’s perspectives on the world.

  This process will continue, and it will flourish if we remember certain things. We must neither ignore our problems nor overstate them. We must never exaggerate our difficulties or send alarms for small reasons. We must remember that it is a delicate thing to oppose the wishes of a friend, and when we’re forced to do so, we must be understanding with each other.

  I hope that when history looks back upon this new chapter in our relationship, these will be remembered as days when America and China accepted the challenge to strengthen the ties that bind us, to cooperate for greater prosperity among our people, and to strive for a more secure and just peace in the world.

  You, the students at Fudan University, and the scholars at all the universities in China and America have a great role to play in both our countries’ futures. From your ranks will come the understanding and skill the world will require in decades to come. Today’s leaders can pave the way of the future. That is our responsibility. But it is always the younger generation who will make the future. It is you who will decide if a continuing, personal friendship can span the generations and the differences that divide us. In such friendship lies the hope of the world.

  When he was a very young man, Zhou Enlai wrote a poem for a schoolmate who was leaving to study abroad. Zhou appreciated the responsibilities that separated them, but he also remembered fondly the qualities that made them friends. And his poem ends:

  Promise, I pray, that someday

  When task done, we go back farming,

  We’ll surely rent a plot of ground

  And as pairing neighbors, let’s live.

  Well, let us, as pairing neighbors, live.

  I’ve been happy to speak to you here, to meet you in this city that is so rich in significance for both our countries. Shanghai is a city of scholarship, a city of learning. Shanghai has been a window to the West. It is a city in which my country and yours issued the communique that began our modern friendship. It is the city where the Yangtze meets the East China Sea, which, itself, becomes the Pacific, which touches our shores.

  The Yangtze is a swift and turbulent river, one of the great rivers of the world. My young friends, history is a river that may take us as it will. But we have the power to navigate, to choose direction, and make our passage together. The wind is up, the current is swift, and opportunity for a long and fruitful journey awaits us.

  Generations hence will honor us for having begun the voyage, for moving on together and escaping the fate of the buried armies of Xi’an, the buried warriors who stood for centuries frozen in time, frozen in an unknowing enmity.

  We have made our choice. Our new journey will continue. And may it always continue in peace and in friendship.

  Thank you very much.

  Note: The President spoke at 3:40 p.m. in the auditorium at the university.

 

玖拾 | 新闻与资源: 1984年⾥根在复旦演讲,那时美国跟现在多么不

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